(12) Intangible assets
All business combinations are recognised using the acquisition method. Goodwill is the amount that arises from the acquisition of subsidiaries. Goodwill represents the excess of the cost of the acquisition over the net fair value of the identifiable assets and liabilities at the time of acquisition. An impairment test is carried out every year.
Negative goodwill arising from an acquisition is recognised directly in the statement of profit or loss.
(12b) Other intangible assets
Intangible assets acquired by the Group that have finite useful lives are measured at cost less accumulated amortisation and accumulated impairments.
Regarding goodwill, an impairment test is systematically performed every year at the reporting date to determine whether there are any impairments. The other intangible assets are amortised through the statement of profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the expected useful lives of the intangible assets, and undergo periodic impairment testing (see accounting policy 20). The estimated useful lives of the intangible asset categories are as follows:
Customer base: 5-20 years
Order book: 4 years
Sand quarry concessions: 5-15 years
Brand: 5-10 years
(12d) Expenses after initial recognition
Expenditure on intangible assets, other than goodwill, is only capitalised after initial recognition if it is expected to increase the future economic benefits that are inherent in the specific asset to which the expenditure relates. All other items of expenditure are recognised as costs in the statement of profit or loss when these are incurred.