(6) Revenue from contracts with customers

Revenue is recognised if the Group has entered into a contract with a customer in which the performance obligations can be identified and the terms of the transaction are clear and where the contract is of undeniable economic importance. It must also be probable that the customer will pay. Revenue is recognised on each individual contract. Revenue from portfolios of contracts with similar features is recognised on a portfolio basis if the result is not materially different from the revenue measured on an individual basis. If a contract involves several performance obligations, revenue is separately attributed to the performance obligations concerned based on relatively stand-alone selling prices.

Revenue is recognised at the time when the customer takes control of the fulfilled performances. Variable consideration is only recognised if it is highly probable that a significant revenue reversal will not occur:

  • Revenue from additional work is included in the overall contract revenue if the client has accepted the sum involved in any way.

  • Claims and incentives are recognised in the amount for work in progress where they derive from enforceable rights, it is highly probable that they will lead to revenue and can be reliably measured.

  • Unless it is highly unlikely that a penalty will be applied, the amount of any penalties will be deducted from the revenue.

If the results from a contract cannot be determined reliably, contract revenue is only recognised insofar as it is probable that the costs incurred can be covered by revenue.

If a contract contains a significant financing component, the Group adjusts the revenue accordingly. This is not done if the time between the fulfilment of the performance obligation and the payment of the consideration is less than one year.

Expected contract losses are recognised immediately in the statement of profit or loss. In measuring the amount of provisions for losses, the Group proceeds on the basis of the economic benefits expected to be received compared with the attributable costs of the contract.

(6a) Sales of goods - mainly land

Revenue from the sale of goods - mainly land - is recognised at the agreed consideration or attributed consideration where the transfer of title to the land forms part of a combined purchase/construction contract in the case of residential projects. The revenue from the land is recognised at the time of legal conveyance.

(6b) Work in progress projects

The revenue relating to work in progress is recognised in the statement of profit or loss when control is transferred to the client. Since the Group executes projects on land owned by the client, the client obtains control by accession according to progress made in completion of the project. The stage of completion is assessed by reference to the proportion of costs recorded in relation to the total expected costs to the extent that the costs incurred are representative of the progress made in the transfer of goods/services to the client (taking account of unsold units). Inefficiencies are disregarded in determining the stage of completion.

(6c) Services

Revenue from the provision of services, mainly servicing and maintenance activities, is recognised in the statement of profit or loss in proportion to the work performed, since the client receives the benefits from and has use of the services at the same rate. The stage of completion is determined from assessments of the work already carried out.

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