(22) Interest-bearing liabilities

Interest-bearing loans form part of the financial liabilities (see accounting policy 13b), except for lease liabilities (see accounting policy 22c).

(22a) Financing preference share capital

Preference share capital is classified as a liability because the dividend payments are not discretionary. Dividends on preference share capital are recognised as interest expense in the statement of profit or loss.

(22b) Loans

Interest-bearing loans are initially recognised at fair value less attributable transaction costs. Any difference between the amortised cost and the redemption amount calculated by the effective interest method is recognised in the statement of profit or loss over the term of each such loan.

(22c) Lease liabilities

On the commencement date of the lease, the Group measures the liability at the net present value of the fixed lease payments that have not yet been made as at that date. These include lease payments (including in-substance fixed lease payments) less lease incentives still to be received, variable lease payments depending on an index or rate and amounts expected to be payable under residual value guarantees. The lease payments also include the purchase option price if it is reasonably certain that the Group will exercise this option. The lease payments also include the penalties for termination of the lease if the lease period reflects the exercise by the Group of an option to terminate the lease. Variable lease payments not depending on an index or rate are expensed in the period in which the event or circumstance giving rise to these payments occurs.

In calculating the net present value of the lease payments, the Group makes use of the incremental borrowing rate if the interest rate implicit in the lease cannot be readily determined. After the commencement date, the liability is increased in respect of interest and reduced by the lease payments made. The Group re-measures the liability in the event of a change in the lease agreement, an adjustment of the lease period, a review of an in-substance fixed lease payment or a change in the assessment thereof or use is made of a purchase option.

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