(20) Impairments

The carrying amounts of the Group’s non-financial assets, excluding work in progress assets (see accounting policy 16), inventories (see accounting policy 15) and deferred tax assets (see accounting policy 9), are reviewed each reporting date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. If there are such indications, an estimate is made of the recoverable amount of the asset concerned.

For goodwill, intangible assets with an unlimited useful life, and intangible assets that are not yet ready for use, the recoverable amount is estimated at the reporting date.

An impairment loss is recognised whenever the carrying amount of an asset or its cash-generating unit exceeds its recoverable amount. Impairment losses are recognised in the statement of profit or loss.

Impairment losses recognised in respect of cash-generating units are allocated first to reduce the carrying amount of any goodwill allocated to the units, and then to reduce the carrying amount of the other assets in the unit (or group of units) on a pro rata basis.

(20a) Determination of recoverable amount

The recoverable amount of an asset is equal to the higher of its net selling price and its value in use. To determine the value in use, the discounted value of the estimated future cash flows is calculated using a discount rate that reflects current market rates as well as the specific risks associated with the asset. For any asset that does not generate cash inflows and is largely independent of other assets, the recoverable amount is determined on the basis of its cash-generating unit.

(20b) Reversal of impairments

Impairment losses in respect of goodwill are never reversed.

In respect of other assets, impairments recognised in other periods are reversed if there is an indication that the impairment no longer exists or has decreased and if there has been a change in the estimates used to determine the recoverable amount.

An impairment is reversed only to the extent that the asset’s carrying amount does not exceed the carrying amount that would have been determined, net of depreciation or amortisation, if no impairment had been recognised.

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