6.16 Inventories

x € 1,000

31 December 2022

31 December 2021

Strategic land holdings

78,518

108,323

Residential property in preparation and under construction

80,358

63,078

Other inventories

13,981

13,923

Total

172,857

185,324

Carrying amount of inventories pledged as security

39,104

39,226

Strategic land holdings

The strategic land holdings are measured at cost or net realisable value if lower. The net realisable value of these holdings may be either the direct realisable value or the indirect realisable value. The net realisable value depends on the expected manner and time horizon of realisation and in most cases, therefore, is measured using an indirect realisable value method. The indirect realisable value is the estimated selling price in the ordinary course of business less the estimated costs of completion and the estimated costs necessary to make the sale, the expected cash flows usually being discounted to net present value using a discount rate of 5% unless a different rate has been agreed, for example on the basis of favourable financing arrangements available within a joint undertaking. In fixing the discount rate, account is taken of the expected capital structure, operational risks and specific circumstances affecting Heijmans or the project concerned.

Determining the indirect realisable value involves the use of judgements and estimates. The strategic land holdings are affected by several elements of uncertainty, such as demographic changes, location and details and implementation of development plans and administrative decisions, with as local a focus as possible. This provides a location-specific forecast of developments in land and house prices and other variables, which ultimately determine the indirect revenue value of the land holdings. The Group makes a comprehensive internal assessment of the value of its land holdings twice a year.

In general, the risk of deviations from the judgements and estimates is greater for strategic land holdings without planning permission than for those with. Moreover, this risk keeps increasing the longer the expected delay is before the start of development.

The net realisable value of the strategic land holdings was calculated in 2022 and compared with the carrying amount. This led to a write-down of nil million (2021: write-downs totalling €2.1 million). There was also a write-down of €4.1 million of a joint venture (2021: €0.9 million). The decreases in value are partly due to specific local conditions that have adversely affected the success of projects, time to completion, expected margins and the number of homes completed.

For more information on the pledging of land holdings in connection with the financing agreements, refer to note 6.22.

Term

In principle, the strategic land holdings and the residential property in preparation and under construction have terms of more than 12 months after the reporting date (mostly 2 to 10 years). The other items in principle have a term of less than 12 months.

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